When you use sources in your paper, you will need to either quote, paraphrase, or summarize the information. Summaries are used for longer passages; they provide a brief, overview of the source, using new and unique phrasing.
Using 3 to 4 sentences, summarize the document you have selected from the library guide.
Note: Remember to cite any works you use in your assignment. You will not be graded on the citations; the purpose is just to make certain you are practicing using citations.
Specifically, you must address the following rubric criteria:
Save your work in a Word document and include a page with references. It must be written in MLA or APA format. Use double spacing, 12-point Times New Roman font, and one-inch margins.
The High Price of Multitasking Willingham, Daniel T . New York Times (Online) , New York: New York Times Company. Jul 14, 2019.
ProQuest document link
ABSTRACT (ENGLISH) We all do it. The question is how. FULL TEXT html>
Not only do smartphones provide unprecedented access to information, they provide unprecedented opportunities
to multitask. Any activity can be accompanied by music, selfies or social media updates. Of course, some people
pick poor times to tweet or text, and lawmakers have stepped in. Forty-eight states have banned texting while
driving. In Honolulu, it’s illegal to text or even look at your phone while crossing the street, and in the Netherlands
they’ve banned texting while biking.
But legislation won’t proscribe all situations in which multitasking is unwise; you need to self-regulate.
Understanding how the brain multitasks and why we find multitasking so appealing will help you gauge the hazard
of pulling out your phone.
Multitasking feels like doing two things simultaneously, so it seems the danger lies in asking one mental process
to do two incompatible things — for texting drivers, watching the screen and the road. A lot of lawmakers must
think that way, because 20 states have instituted bans on driving using a hand-held phone while still allowing
hands-free calls. Yet hands-free or hand-held makes no difference — they impair driving equivalently as far as
external hazards go. Why?
You actually manipulate your phone only briefly for voice calls. The real problem is the toggling of attention
between the conversation and the road. Even simple tasks can’t be done simultaneously; you switch between
them, and that affects performance.
In a classic experiment, subjects viewed a digit-letter pair: for example, “C7.” A signal instructed people to classify
the letter as a vowel or nonvowel or the digit as odd or even. After the response, a new stimulus and a new signal
appeared. When the classification task switched, people responded about 20 percent slower than when it was
repeated, because switching requires extra steps: resetting your goal (“ignore digit, attend to letter”) and reloading
the mental rule (“judge it as vowel or consonant.”)
The cost of shuffling goals and mental rules is harmless if there’s predictable downtime during one or both tasks.
As a conference call turns to an agenda item irrelevant to you, go ahead and answer email. Multitasking while
driving is so dangerous because driving requires all of your attention at unpredictable times. People sense this,
and when on the phone they drive slower and increase their following distance, but they are far too confident that
these measures mitigate risk. Fifty-nine percent of adults, young and old, admit to using their phones while driving.
This overconfidence extends to other activities. A 2015 survey showed that a majority of students who use social
media, text or watch TV while studying think that they can still comprehend the material they’re studying.
This confidence is especially understandable for very simple tasks. Everyone knows texting behind the wheel is
dangerous, but listening to music or chatting with a passenger seems so undemanding as to be innocuous. Yet
both measurably compromise driving. If that’s surprising, consider whether you’ve ever turned down the radio or
shushed passengers when the road turned icy or when you were looking for an address.
Even walking, which feels like something we do on autopilot, is not immune. Experiments in virtual environments
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show that pedestrians are more likely to be hit by a vehicle when crossing the street if they are listening to music.
But people don’t multitask solely because they see no harm in it; they perceive benefits. They say they multitask
for efficiency, to fight boredom or to keep up with social media.
Music, likely the most common variety of multitasking, is added to tasks because it heightens arousal (for
example, your heart rate increases), making it easier to stick with a long drive or a tedious textbook. Music was
once common on factory assembly lines; the British Broadcasting Corporation offered a radio program for this
purpose, “Music While You Work,” from 1940 until 1967.
Thus, even if you fully appreciate the cognitive cost, you might tolerate it in exchange for the emotional lift.
Parents disapprove when their child studies with deadmau5 blasting because they compare that with studying in
silence. But the child calculates that without the music, he wouldn’t study.
This trade-off of cognition and emotion suggests a few principles to better manage your multitasking.
First, hoping for efficiency by combining two pure productivity tasks — say, composing a letter while following a
presentation — is folly. That’s all cognitive cost and no emotional benefit.
Second, be realistic about what poor task performance (when driving, for example, or operating machinery) might
mean, given that you’re not as good at multitasking as you believe. If you’re not ready to eliminate secondary
tasks, at least be ready to ditch them in the moment. I don’t expect music to disappear from cars, but consider
hitting mute if traffic gets dense or road conditions worsen.
Third, see if you can get the emotional lift without the cognitive cost. Instead of multitasking, take more rest
breaks, and get your social media fix during a break.
People will choose to multitask. But we should, at the very least, be fully aware of how that choice affects us and
the potential consequences for ourselves and others. We need to pay attention to how much — or how little — we
are paying attention.
Daniel T. Willingham (@DTWillingham) is a professor of psychology at the University of Virginia and the author,
most recently, of “The Reading Mind: A Cognitive Approach to Understanding How the Mind Reads.”
The Times is committed to publishing a diversity of letters to the editor. We’d like to hear what you think about this
or any of our articles. Here are some tips. And here’s our email: [email protected]
Follow The New York Times Opinion section on Facebook, Twitter (@NYTopinion) and Instagram.
Daniel T. Willingham is a professor of psychology at the University of Virginia and the author, most recently, of
“The Reading Mind: A Cognitive Approach to Understanding How the Mind Reads.” DETAILS
Subject: Social networks; Music; Multitasking; Text messaging
Location: Netherlands; New York
Company / organization: Name: New York Times Co; NAICS: 511110, 511120, 515112, 515120; Name:
University of Virginia; NAICS: 611310; Name: Twitter Inc; NAICS: 519130; Name:
Facebook Inc; NAICS: 518210, 519130; Name: British Broadcasting Corp; NAICS:
Identifier / keyword: Text Messaging; Driver Distraction and Fatigue; Social Media; Traffic Accidents and
Publication title: New York Times (Online); New York
Publication year: 2019
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LINKS Request this item through ILL, Check Full Text Finder for Full Text
Database copyright 2022 ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. Terms and Conditions Contact ProQuest
Publication date: Jul 14, 2019
Publisher: New York Times Company
Place of publication: New York
Country of publication: United States, New York
Publication subject: General Interest Periodicals–United States
Source type: Blog, Podcast, or Website
Language of publication: English
Document type: Opinions
ProQuest document ID: 2257389762
Document URL: https://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?qurl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.proquest.com%2Fblogs
Copyright: Copyright 2019 The New York Times Company
Last updated: 2020-07-09
Database: ProQuest Central
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